Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Key Pieces of Student Essay Topics, Stress Student Essay Topics, Stress Help! The capability to tolerate stress is dependent on several things, for example, quality of somebody's relationships, general outlook on life, emotional intelligence, and genetics. Psychologically, it is considered as an emotional experience that is accompanied by predictable biochemical, psychological and behavioral changes. Put simply, you've got to identify the causes of stress and suggest solutions. In this instance, stress isn't all bad since it may help learners perform a bit better. New Questions About Student Essay Topics, Stress Evidently, the impact of stress on high school students is quite prevalent and can cause many problems. There's a high probability that it's directly regarding the health stress a college student may have. Along with a college student's classmates, it can also be the result of the pressure coming from the teacher. Academic stress is not uncommon among college studen ts. Getting young isn't only fun, but also stressful, especially whenever you're a college student. Then there's the rare group of people who are so smart they don't need to be concerned about their grades. Since many students are on some type of financial or scholarship program, maintaining their GPA to be able to remain in school, passing classes, and receiving good grades are crucial in college. Well, here you'll locate various items for each college student. The Student Essay Topics, Stress Chronicles The brain controls all of the stress mechanism within the body making it the key stress organ. Students need enough sleep and not as much pressure for their brain to unwind and recharge in order for it to function well. Children now have to be concerned about stress and the health problems connected with it at a significantly younger age. Stress in students may have serious harmful results and thus should be addressed. Stress can likewise be self-generated. Very good stress is stress that you're able to manage. Toxic stress impacts the physical, emotional, psychological, and societal facets of a kid. Stress Essay Model Answer Stress is an issue that may have detrimental results on several people's lives, and there is an assortment of aspects in modern society accountable for this. There are several different methods to solve stress difficulties. Get an entire paper today. Bear in mind, a great essay like every great story needs to have a start, middle and end. Some individuals may not be comfortable making themselves the primary focus of the essay. The principal element which produces a persuasive essay in English stand out from the remainder of assignments is the use of reasoning. To do so, you want to get a guide to compose the very best essay on the selected topic. You will likely find a different and wonderful topic you will love to write about. Still, figuring out the very best topic for your essay isn't your only concern for a student. When writing this essay, choose a subject of interest. Select a distinctive topic that others may not think of, and whatever you select, make certain you know a lot about it! The first thing which a student with a lot of issues will do is to speak to his pals and consult with them on what things to do. The very first answer that arrives in my mind is via the organization of their pals. Stress could also get to the point at which someone might think there's no longer a reason to call home. Sure, with this kind of a substantial number of topics to select from, picking just one may be challenging. You should brainstorm some issues particular to the world we are living in today that may lead to stress. Basically, everyone experiences moments of stress, and it may break or make you based on the way that it is handled. When you have signals of stress very frequently, it is far better to do something about it so you may enhance your quality of life.
Friday, May 15, 2020
Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2430 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? Due to globalization, the economy around the world has been largely integrated. Many corporations are expanding their markets into regions or other countries they have never touched before. These corporations are experiencing an evolutionary stage: internationalization. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "International Human Resource Management: A Literature Review" essay for you Create order It is clear that effective human resource management of an organization is the major competitive advantage and may even be the most important determinant of organizational performance. Thus, in order to survive in the crucial global economic market, a multinational corporation (MNC) mainly relies on the capability of its international human resource management (IHRM) during the internationalization process. In other words, it is the IHRMs responsibility to enable the MNCs to be successful globally. Over the past several decades, practitioners and scholars have devoted great effort to explore the field of IHRM and there have developed thousands of literatures which support the notion that international human resource management is increasingly an important topic. Most of their focus has been on IHRM issues in MNCs. Further, much of the literature deals specifically with managing expatriates (Napier, 1998).This literature review is divided into five parts. First part provides a brie f introduction of the IHRM definition. In the second part, reasons for the increasing importance of IHRM are explained. Then, the author introduces strategic IHRM and an integrative framework of Strategic IHRM in MNCs Definition of International Human Resource Management (IHRM) What is IHRM? Actually, it is not easy to provide a precise definition of international human resource management (IHRM) because the responsibility of an HR manger in a multinational corporation (MNC) varies from one firm to another. Generally speaking, IHRM is the effective utilization of human resources in a corporation in an international environment. Scullion (1995: p352) defined IHRM as the HRM issues and problems arising from the internationalization of business, and the HRM strategies, policies and practices which firms pursue in response to the internationalization of business. In most studies, the term IHRM has traditionally focused on expatriation (Brewster and Harris, 1999). However, IHRM covers a far wider spectrum than expatriation management. Four major activities essentially concerned with IHRM were recruitment and selection, training and development, compensation and repatriation of expatriates (Welch, 1994). Iles (1995) also identifies four key areas in IHRM as recruitment and selection, training and development, managing multicultural teams and international diversity and performance management. From the perspective of worldwide people management, Hendry (1994) points out three main issues in IHRM: 1) expatriation management and development; 2) the management internationalization through the whole organization; 3) creating a corporate culture to internationalize the corporation to fulfill the increasing need of inter-cultural interactions of doing business abroad and in home country. Recent definitions concern IHRM with activities of how MNCs manage their geographically decentralized employees in order to develop their HR resources for competitive advantage, both locally and globally. The role and functions of IHRM, the relationship between subsidiaries and headquarters, and the policies and practices are considered in this more strategic approach. Dowling, Schuler and Welch define IHRM as a collection of policies and practices that a multinational enterprise uses to manage local and non-local employees it has in countries other than their home countries (Dowling et al., 1993: p2). Due to the development of globalization, new challenges occur and increase the complexity of managing MNCs. IHRM is seen as a key role to balance the need for coordinating and controlling oversea subsidiaries, and the need to adapt to local environments. Therefore, the definition of IHRM has extended to management localization, international coordination, and the development of global leadership, etc. (Gregerson et al., 1998; Scullion and Starkey, 2000). To sum up, IHRM should not become a description of fragmented responses to distinctive national problems nor about the copying of HRM practices, as many of these practices suit national cultures and institutions. Indeed, issues of concern in IHRM are those of consistency or standardization within diverse social and cultural environments (Nankervis, Compton Baird, 2002). Reasons for growing importance of IHRM In order to explore the field of IHRM, it is important to understand why there is gradual increase of interest in International Human Resource Management. IHRM is of great importance at present for a number of reasons: Recent years have witnessed the rapid growth of globalization and international competition. The multinational corporations (MNCs) have increased in number and significance, which contributing to the growing importance of the international role of human resource management (Black et al., 2000). It has been increasingly recognized that the effectiveness of human resource management is one of the major factors to determine the success or failure of international business. There is also recognition that the quality of management in international operations seems to be more critical than in domestic operations (Black et al., 1999; Harris et al., 2003). A growing shortage of managers with international exposure and experience is becoming an increasing deficiency which affects a companys corporate efforts to expand abroad. Meanwhile, the emerging markets require managers with distinctive competence and context-specific knowledge of how to do business successfully in countries which are both culturally and economically distantly. Thus, a larger role for IHRM activities in multinational corporations is assigned (Black and Gregersen, 1999; Morgan et al., 2003). The failure in international business arena is often costly both in human and financial terms, and is proved to be more severe than that in domestic business. Companies need to take precautionary measures to train and compensate human resources. This makes a full-fledged IHRM necessary (Dowling et al., 1999). HR strategy plays a significant role in the control and implementation in MNCs. It is not difficult to determine which strategy to pursue for a MNC in an internationalizing environment. What challenges is how to implement these strategies to be successful. Developing unique or ganizational cultures is of far more importance than structural innovations in any global or transnational strategy. To this extent, IHRM strategy becomes the crucial determinant of the implementation and success of the MNC strategy (Bartlett and Ghoshal, 1998). The complex nature of HRM problems involving in global environment is underestimated by some companies. Poor management of human resource often results in business failures in international business. Expatriate performance failure or underperformance continues to be problematic for IHRM in many international corporations (Dowling et al. 1994). Strategic IHRM Under the global context, understanding how multinational Corporations (MNCs) can operate more effectively becomes more important than ever. This links a MNC with the need of an internationalized strategy which can direct its subsidiaries operation not only in the home country, but also in different parts of the world. There are several reasons to develop IHRM strategy: 1) at any level, HRM is important to strategy implementation (Hamel Prahalad, 1986; Schuler and Jackson 2001); 2)major strategic components of multinational enterprises have a major influence on international management issues, functions, and policies and practices(Edstrom and Galbraith, 1977; Robers et al., 1998); 3) the attainment of the concerns and goals of MNCs can be influenced by many of these characteristics of IHRM (Kobrin, 1992); 4) the study of IHRM is challenging and important because there are a wide variety of factors making the relationship between MNCs and IHRM complex(Bartlett and Goshal, 1998, 200 0; Dowling et al., 1999). Schuler et al. (1993) define strategic IHRM as human resource management issues, functions and policies and practices that result from the strategic activities of multinational enterprises and that impact the international concerns and goals of those enterprises(P422). They developed a model (see figure 1.) to examine the field of Strategic IHRM. The model shows the linkage of important elements connected with IHRM, the importance of integration and differentiation of these elements. Exogenous Factors Industry Characteristics Country/ Regional Characteristics MNC Concerns and Goals Competitiveness Efficiency Responsiveness Flexibility Transfer of Knowledge and learning SIHRM Issues Interunit Linkages -control/ variety Internal Operations Local sensitivity / Strategic fit SIHRM Function Orientation Resources Location Strategic MNC Components Interunit Linkages Internal Operations SIHRM Policies/ Practices Staffing Appraising Compensating Developing Endogenous Factors Structure of International operations Headquarters international orientation Competitive Strategy Experience in Managing International Operations Figure 1. Integrative framework of Strategic IHRM in MNCs In the model, two major strategic components of MNCs that influence Strategic IHRM are pointed out: interunit linkages and internal operations. Regarding interunit linkages, multinational enterprises are concerned with how to effective operate their various world-wide operating units. In particular, the key objectives appear to be how these operating units are to be differentiated and integrated, controlled and coordinated. For strategic IHRM, the issues associated with integrating and coordinating an MNCs units represent a major influence on strategic IHRM issues, policies and practices (Schuler et al., 1993). With respect to internal operations, they require the same attention as the linkage of the units, since they all influence MNC effectiveness. Each unit has to be operated as effectively as possible relative to the competitive strategy of the MNC and the unit itself (Schuler et al., 2002). It has been argued that the success of strategic IHRM in a MNC is largely influenced by the quality of it human resources and how effectively the corporations employees are managed (Bartlett and Goshal, 1992). There are three approaches which describe how multinational companies manage the human resources and their overseas subsidiaries: ethnocentric, polycentric and geocentric. Eethnocentric Approach This practice usually happens in the early stage of a firms internationalization involvement. With this approach, strategic decisions are all made by the headquarters and the management practices are transferred to the subsidiaries. Most important positions are filled by parent-country nationals (PCNs).As a result, little autonomy is given to overseas operating units. During this stage, home country expatriates exercise tight control. Polycentric Approach When the strategy becomes polycentric, there is a marked decline in the number of PCNs sending abroad and their role changes into communication and coordination of strategic objectives. Host-country nationals (HCNs) are recruited to manage the operating units in their own country because local managers know more about the local circumstances and are more familiar with local business ethics. More autonomy is given to local managers to develop their own management practices appropriate for the subsidiary. Geocentric Approach This approach relates most closely to the global or transnational strategy. Selection of employees is based on competency rather than nationality. The best of headquarter and local practices are combined by MNCs in order to come up with a global-implemented HR strategy. Most MNCs take the IHRM strategy as a guideline and implement it locally. It is therefore the HR managers responsibilities to provide the proper international HR strategy to prepare and manage the employees in their home country or an international assignment. IHRM and Culture Different cultures of various countries and MNCs are one of the most important and difficult challenges to the conduct of IHRM. National and organizational cultures differentiate from one country and firm from those of another. Often these differences clash when companies conduct business in multinational environment. Cultural differences across countries can influence people in their work environment (Harzing Ruysseveldt, 2004). Hofstede (1984) defines culture as collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from another (Hofstede, 1984: P21). It is important to understand peoples different cultural backgrounds to be able to identify the consequences for international management. According to Medich (1995), culture is a crucial variable in international assignments and should be included in international management practices (Medich, 1995). As it is claimed by Briscoe and Schuler (2004) that knowledge about and competency in working with country and company cultures is the most important issue impacting the success of international business activity (Briscoe and Schuler, 2004: P114), understanding various values, beliefs and behaviors of people are essential aspects of success for doing business internationally. Understanding Culture as Layers of Meaning The multiple layers of meaning of culture are one of the complexities that make it so difficult to manage. There are a large number of readily observable characteristics (such as food, art, clothing, greetings and historical landmarks) that differ obviously from other countries or operations. Sometimes these are referred as manifestations of underlying values and assumptions which are much less obvious. One way to understand this complexity is explained by the layers of culture model (see Figure 2). The model represents culture as a series of layers. Moving from outside to inside, each layer represents less and less explicit values and assumptions while the values and assumptions become more important in determining the attitudes and behaviors. Surface Culture Hidden Culture Invisible Culture Figure 2. Model of Culture Layers The outermost layer, which is called the surface layer, corresponds to readily visible values and assumptions, like dress, body language and food. The middle layer or the hidden culture layer corresponds to religions, values and philosophies concerning for example what is right and wrong. The invisible layer at the core represents one cultures universal truths, which is most difficult for foreigners to understand (Briscoe Schuler, 2004). According to Harzing and Ruysseveldt (2004) there exist different cultural dimension among different cultures. These cultural dimensions have been identified and one frequently cited work from a well-known researcher within this cultural dimension field is Geert Hofstede. Hofstedes cultural dimensions Hofstede have identified five cultural dimensions for which each country could be classified in. These five dimensions are power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism versus collectivism, masculinity versus femininity, and long-term versus short-term orientation (Hofstede, 2001). Power distance indicates the level of inequality in institutions and organizations. A country with large power distance is characterized by formal hierarchies and by subordinates who have little influence in their own work and where the boss have total authority. Uncertainty avoidance focuses on the level in which people in a certain country tolerate uncertainty and ambiguity within the society. High uncertainty indicates that the country has a low tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. This will inevitably create a society which is rule-oriented, which institutes laws, regulations and controls to diminish the amount of uncertainty (Hofstede, 1984). Individualism versus collectivism refers to the degree where people prefer to take care of themselves, and making their own decisions rather than being bound to groups or families. A highly individualistic society consists of usually impersonal and loose relationships between individuals, while a low individualistic society has more tight relationships between individuals, hence referred to as collectivism by Hofstede (1984). The masculinity versus femininity dimension describes if a culture are bound towards values that are seen as more similar to womens or mens values. Masculinity is characterized by stereotype adjectives such as assertiveness and competitive, while the femininity is characterized by modesty and sensitivity. A high masculinity ranking indicates the country experiences a high degree of gender differences, usually favoring men rather than women. The fifth and last cultural dimension is long-term versus short-term orientation. A long-term oriented society emphasize on building a future oriented perspective in contrast to the short-term oriented society which values the present and past (Hofstede, 2001).
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Ã¢â¬ËCousin MarshallÃ¢â¬â¢ and the Role of Responsibility, Charity, and Suffering Harriet Martineau, in her story Ã¢â¬Å"Cousin Marshall,Ã¢â¬ addressed the separate spheres of work and responsibility between a husband and wife in the figures of the Mrs. Bell and Mrs. Marshall. Martineau intended the story to act as a lesson to her readers and this is reflected in the dualistic portrayal of the two women. Cousin Marshall is portrayed as the height of womanly responsibility and suffering while Mrs. Bell is portrayed as a blight on society. Martineau assigned the financial management of the household to women. While she did indicate that it was the husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s role to bring in wages, it was the wife who was responsible for maintaining and managingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å"the coals we got did not last half the winter through; for my husband likes a good fire when he can get itÃ¢â¬ ¦I had to sell one of the blanketsÃ¢â¬ (12). Marshall, on the other hand, rebukes her through her own exemplary condition. Ã¢â¬Å"I do wonder you can bear to live from hand to mouth in that wayÃ¢â¬ ¦you got your first set of baby-linen at the same time that I didÃ¢â¬ ¦why yours should not have lasted as well as mine, I canÃ¢â¬â¢t thinkÃ¢â¬ (12). According to Martineau, it is the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility not only to maintain the household, but to do it responsibly with the greater good of the community in mind. MarshallÃ¢â¬â¢s refusal to burden the system with her own needs is indicative of MartineauÃ¢â ¬â¢s ideal of wifely responsibility. Finally, the notion of suffering plays an interesting role in MartineauÃ¢â¬â¢s story. MarshallÃ¢â¬â¢s death, Ã¢â¬Å"the close of [her] very long life, was not altogether so serene as the character of its days of vigour might seem to deserveÃ¢â¬ (Martineau 125). In spite of her frugality and her staunch insistence on personal responsibility, she dies nearly penniless, with only enough money to pay for her funeral. She exists this way as a result of her refusal to depend on the charity of others, public or private. It seems in many ways that it was part of her duty, her responsibility, in MartineauÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes that she suffer without protest and without complaint. Martineau firmly placed the blame on the system, however, not on MarshallÃ¢â¬â¢s choices. Ã¢â¬ËI hope,Ã¢â¬â¢ said Mr. Burke, Ã¢â¬ËthatShow MoreRelatedEssay on The Comparative Advantage of Sexual Divisions of Labor5471 Words Ã |Ã 22 Pagessocial structures that arose to keep the pressures of population in check. The second perspective argues that a comparative advantage is a socially constructed idea and not rooted in the biological history of the race. Martineau in her story Ã¢â¬Å"Cousin MarshallÃ¢â¬ delineated the life of what she saw as a virtuous and noble woman. Virginia Woolf, however, decried what she saw as the deplorable poverty of women in A Room of OneÃ¢â¬â¢s Own. Her solution, however, only served to further separate the spheres ofRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 Pagestheir situation within the domestic sphere and the conditions under which they labored to expand the career oppo rtunities available to them at different times and in diverse settings. She places special emphasis on the important but often overlooked roles they played in politics, particularly those associated with resistance movements, and their contributions to arts and letters worldwide. Drawing on the essay collections and series on women in world history that she has edited over the past decadeRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 PagesSupplement C Conducting Meetings 651 Appendix I Glossary 673 Appendix II References 683 Name Index 705 Subject Index 709 Combined Index 713 iii This page intentionally left blank CONTENTS Preface xvii INTRODUCTION 1 3 THE CRITICAL ROLE OF MANAGEMENT SKILLS The Importance of Competent Managers 6 The Skills of Effective Managers 7 Essential Management Skills 8 What Are Management Skills? 9 Improving Management Skills 12 An Approach to Skill Development 13 Leadership and Management
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss About The Contagion During Greek Sovereign Debt Crisis? Answer: Introducation The European sovereign debt crisis had a great impact on markets and several implications. The impacts of the debt crisis were so deep to the world's economy that we can still observe them today especially at the Eurozone's countries such as Greece, Spain, Italy, Ireland and Portugal(Lane, 2012). High volatility of the euro markets has been a significant factor during the crisis period. Those high levels of volatility can lead to high interest rates of borrowing for the countries with debts and as a consequence to high bond yield spreads. Several European countries at the same time faced collapse in their financial institutions and government debt. This led to rising spread amongst bond yield spreads in government securities from the year 2008 which started in Iceland with its banking system collapse and spread to Greece, Ireland and Portugal(Von Hagen, 2011). Fig. 1. Bond yield spreads for EU-15 central governments, January 1991-May 2009. As we can see in figure 2 the bond yield spreads for the EU-15 central governments during May 1991 till October 2006 were low, whereas the bond yield spreads during October 2006 and May 2009 were extremely high. Investors seeing higher associated risks with bond investing needed higher return for compensation of such risks. There was a vicious cycle present that led to surge in demand for higher yield bonds leading to higher borrowing costs for all countrys that were experiencing crisis situation. Fiscal strain operating within the country especially in Greece led to demands for higher yields and subsequently investors losing their confidence affecting selling. European Union acted gradually by opting for bailouts of nations especially troubled economies. In totality the European Union along with International Monetary Fund disbursed a total of 110 billion euros to Greece alone. Then Portugal and Ireland opted for bailouts, following establishment of EFSF providing emergency lending to countries in difficulty. The Long Term Refinancing Operation (LTRO) established programs for bailouts for countries. Various countries held on to their reserves for their economic growth and boost their bank balances. Several endeavours were made by European policy makers for stabilising their financial markets, to save their fiscal health. With ECB coming into action investors became bully globally reinvesting again in bond markets of smaller nations. Government bonds are historically considered as the safest investment. After the crisis, investors starting to lose their confidence in the stock market and as a result they stop investing on it. Consequently, investors turned to government bonds and this led to a rise in the demand of bonds(Aizenman, 2013). Therefore, Central Banks tried to increase their holding of government bonds. Because of the increased demand, the price of the bonds has been raised. European countries believed collapse or Euro along with financial contagion by the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Several countries in the European Union including Greece received bailout funds for preventing crisis within their economy for slowing down of public sector debt. Demand for governmental bonds or sovereign paper rising which eventually led to their inability to pay(Arghyrou, 2012). These banks resorted to third party financial institutions as European Central Bank (ECB), European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) for their payments. There were a total of 17 countries belonging to the European Union that voted for creation of EFSF for resolving European debt crisis. Source, Bloomberg : Euro Index from 2001-2012 The above graph shows the historical price graph of the European government bonds 7-10 years of maturity. The graph shows that the price of the government bonds gone very high from 2001 till 2012 and it is still rising. Inability to repay government financed debt led to refinancing of such instruments(Mink, 2013). The primary drivers of European Sovereign Crisis was financial crisis which was a direct consequence of Greet Recession in 2008 2012, which eventually was related to real estate market property bubbles. Greece government had gross underestimated its budget deficits which led to financial crisis and rising rates of the bond market. Source, Bloomberg : Bond Indices for US government 7-10 year, Bloomberg Finance L.P. The above graph shows the US 7-10 years of maturity price of the government bonds from 2001 till 2012. Again, because of the correlation of the European economy and the US economy the sovereign debt crisis has led the bond prices to high levels. What is more, if we observe the graph we can clearly notice that during 2008 and 2012 there is high volatility which indicates the high demand for government bonds during that period. The US economy due to persistent demand in debts had to raise their rates for fiscal position(Beirne, 2013). European countries were also made unsustainable due to rising levels of unsustainability. The stock market is different to the bond market. During credit instability the price of the shares of the firms will decrease. Furthermore, when economies enter into recession the expected profit of the firms is going to be lower thus the firms are going to pay less dividend. Therefore, investors will lose their interest in the equity market and they will eventually turn to other markets such as bond markets. The following graphs drawn from Bloomberg are showing the price levels for SP 500, EURO STOXX and NIKKEI 225 for the period of 2000 till 2012. As we observe there is high volatility to all three equity markets. Furthermore, the low and high prices of the Euro equity index and the Japanese equity index are quite high whereas the prices of the US equity index are low. During January of 2008 the prices fall down for the EURO STOXX and the NIKKEI 225 and the SP 500 experienced great loses during November of 2008. The SP 500's prices went up on March of 2009 whereas the EURO STOXX's and the NIKKEI's 225 prices remained low. Though initially there was a substantial pool of investors in the equity market, but with rising debt levels investors started diverting their funds. There was high inflow of funds that took place in the debt market, with investors booking profits in the equity market. Diverted funds from the stock market of Europe led to crisis in the equity market as well(Arezki, 2011). Low liquidity led to tremendous pressures on companies to dividends, who felt constrained now to be able to pay off debts. With collapse of governmental debt, there was pressure building in the equity market, where panic selling rose to a substantial extent. Debt crisis reignited panic across all markets, especially in equity and also in commodity markets. With countries opting for bailout situations, there was a wave of panic that frightened Spain and Italy. Double-dip recession with opposition to tax increase and cuts in welfare funds, panic swept across entire stretches of European nations. Spain and Italy being centred around hostilities in their bond market fears, made it a suitable target for nervous traders. Investors were interested in safe avenues as Gold and US dollars from all over Britain, Germany and US. Source, Bloomberg : EURO STOXX INDEX from 31/10/2000 - 29/10/2012 Source, Bloomberg : SP 500 INDEX from 31/10/2000 - 29/10/2012 Source, Bloomberg : NIKKEI 225 from 31/10/2000 - 29/10/2012 During the sovereign debt crisis the world's economy collapsed. There were many implications in all type of markets such as the derivatives, commodities, foreign exchange market and of course implications in the gold prices and the oil prices. After the housing bubble, the commodity market entered its own bubble. From 2007 till summer of 2008 oil prices went very high and then plunged to very low price by the end of 2008. Oil though was not the only commodity to experience swings in the prices. Table 1 illustrates the declines for some of the commodities during 2008 compared to the declines during 1970 - 2007. Swing in oil prices led to oil companies losing millions of dollars in the market as well as in their businesses. Oil price was highly destabilised during recession leading to low levels of profit margins(Beetsma, 2013). Other commodity prices also experienced tremendous swing that led to fluctuations in commodity market as well. Implications of Euro Sovereign Debt crisis led to downturn in all aspect of the European economy. There was a sharp decline in demands across Euro zone countries through all relevant channels of international trade. Crude oil prices have become extremely volatile in the international markets. World economy and financial market trends have said to influence influential crude oil price drivers. European bank stocks along with European markets as a whole performed worse at the time of crisis, which led nations to underperform. Political influence arising from crisis situation was immense that pushed nations towards austerity or cutting gaps in revenues and outl ays. There were mixed thoughts that led to European nations often evaluating abandoning Euro. This would impact regional policy and countries would have more freedom to include individual independent policies. There were 17 nations in totality that depended on same currency and common policy. With abandoning of the same there would be an impact of large magnitude on global economy and its financial markets. Deepening debt in the European markets led to downward trends in crude oil markets. With Greece re-opting for bailout, investors view on crude price remained bearish. There had been several fundamental challenges along with failure of the banking system that led to Greece asking for repeated loans. With tandem in world economy and financial markets, oil supply and demand situations have also been affected. The fundamentally upward crude prices have been lagging behind providing future course for the world economy. Currently bond markets have gone to lower levels which has driven prices and brought down prices of bonds. Greater investor risks in bond market, slows down economic growth of countries leading to deflation. While ECB continues its efforts by slashing of interest rates, it aims to further include a quantitative easing program that had earlier been used in U.S. Federal Reserve. Table 1. The commodity bubble, Source: World Economic Outlook Crisis and Recovery The commodity market outlook along with bond and equity markets remained bearish, with rising attention to geopolitical tensions. European debt crisis is a multi-year debt crisis which initiated in 2009. Various scholars attribute consolation of currency union without fiscal union being primary cause of the crisis. The crisis deepened as several banks in Europe owned a significant amount of bonds which negatively reinforced banking systems. Though there were several financial measures that were implemented to resolve crisis situation, bailout of Greece was fundamental to resolving such situations. Ireland and Portugal was able to significantly return from bailout situation and managing their crisis. There was adverse effect on labour market and unemployment rates as well on these European countries. Political impacts on these countries were also immense that influenced various outcomes for several elections. Reference Lists Aizenman, J. H. 2013. What is the risk of European sovereign debt defaults? Fiscal space, CDS spreads and market pricing of risk. Journal of International Money and Finance, 37-59. Arezki, R. C. 2011. Sovereign rating news and financial markets spillovers: Evidence from the European debt crisis. Arghyrou, M. G. 2012. The EMU sovereign-debt crisis: Fundamentals, expectations and contagion. . Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, 658-677. Beetsma, R. G. 2013. Spread the news: The impact of news on the European sovereign bond markets during the crisis. Journal of International Money and Finance, 83-101. Beirne, J. . 2013. The pricing of sovereign risk and contagion during the European sovereign debt crisis. Journal of International Money and Finance, 60-82. Lane, P. R. 2012. The European sovereign debt crisis. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 49-67. Mink, M. . 2013. Contagion during the Greek sovereign debt crisis. Journal of International Money and Finance, 102-113. Von Hagen, J. S. 2011. Government bond risk premiums in the EU revisited: The impact of the financial crisis. European Journal of Political Economy, 36-
Tuesday, April 14, 2020
This 9 track wonder is the prequel to the bands newest album Beyond The Red Mirror, in 2015, 20 years later. Write from the getgo you can sense an epic journey even though its only 50 minutes in length. The story here is when a team of fantasy leguers hunt for the remaining portals to the fantasy dimension so they can escape the drawn out lives,of science fiction(our world). The first track sets up the adventure ever so epically that you would wish to chant to the chorus. The next track, Im Alive, is when the accenture fairly begins. We do have a couple of singles you could say like Script For My Requiem and A Past and Future Secret, the later if which sounds like The Bards Song. If youve seen my review for Beyond the Red Mirror, youre going to love this album especially because its the prequel, the predecessor. We will write a custom essay sample on Imaginations From The Other Side(1995) by Blind Guardian or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The original. The fact that its an awesome story and you can play it at a Ten Fair, makes it of something special. I have to give it an 8.5/10. This has been the Grim Reaper, signing off. For an awesome will fit into any Renaissance Fair
Thursday, March 12, 2020
New 2016 SAT What's a Good Score SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips The SAT underwent significant changes in 2016, so it's important to know how to set score goals based on the newest version of the test. The test is now out of 1600 points instead of 2400 (i.e., the maximum score on the old, pre-2016 SAT). In this article, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll explain what a good score on the new SAT is and show you how to calculate an appropriate goal score for yourself based on where you're applying for college. 2017 National SAT Score Percentiles In our article on how to find your target SAT score, we go over the most recent national statistics for SAT scores. The condensed table below shows the2017 SAT percentile rangesto give you an idea of what kinds of benchmarks you can aim for on the SAT. All scores are composite scores (i.e., your Math and Evidence-Based Reading and Writing scores combined). As a reminder, percentiles indicate what percentage of test takers you scored higher than on the SAT. Thus, the higher your percentile, the more test takers you've outperformed. SAT Composite Score Range Percentile Score 1320-1600 90 to 99+ 1230-1320 80 to 90 1160-1230 69 to 80 1100-1160 59 to 69 1050-1100 49 to 59 1000-1050 40 to 49 940-1000 29 to 40 880-940 19 to 29 800-880 9 to 19 400-800 1- to 9 Source: College Board SAT Understanding Scores 2017 For all students who take the SAT, the average SAT score is1060. The 25th percentile score (higher than only 25% of scorers) is 910-920, and the 75th percentile score (higher than 75% of test takers) is between 1190 and 1200. On the new SAT, then, we can say the following: 1200 = a very good score nationally 1060 = an average score nationally 910 = a very low score nationally If youÃ¢â¬â¢re curious about how the scores on the current and old SAT relate to one another, check out our article on how to convert your new SAT scores to old scores (and vice versa). What's a Good SAT Score Based on Your College Goals? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to consider your personal circumstances and goals when deciding what a good SAT score means for you. If you're aiming for highly selective colleges, national averages aren't going to mean much to yousince these schools typically only look at the top 1% of students.On the flip side, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re considering less selective schools, you might not need a super high SAT score to get accepted. Nowadays, most colleges provide average SAT scores based on the new SAT scoring system (out of 1600); however, it's highly possible you'll come across a few schools that still have the old scoring system on their website. We recommend searching for "[College Name] admissions requirements PrepScholar." Click on the first link to get to our college admissions page for that school. On this page, you'll see tons of information about your school's SAT scores and admissions statistics. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re just looking up information for one school, use our old-to-new SAT score converters to find out what the new SAT score ranges are for a particular school. If a school youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking at only has information on Critical Reading and Math scores for the old 2400 SAT, you can use the Critical Reading score as an approximation of what youÃ¢â¬â¢ll want your new Evidence-Based Reading and Writing (EBRW) score to be. In general, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll want to aim for the 75th percentile score for your school (that is, higher than 75% of accepted students) to give yourself the best chance of getting accepted. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s use Texas AM as an example. Currently, its 75th percentile SAT score is 1360, its 25th percentile score is 1130, and its average score is 1250.Within this 75th percentile composite score, students earned around 690 on Math and around 680 on EBRW (based on the College Board conversion charts). Thus, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re hoping to attend Texas AM, the 75th percentile composite score of 1360 should be your goal score on the new SAT. The football stadium at Texas AM. If you like football, this is probably a good place for you. New SAT to Old SAT Score Conversion: Potential for Variation Since the scoring on the new SAT is divided into two sections out of 800 points each rather than three sections out of 800 points each (as it was on the old 2400 SAT), it's safe to say thatthere might be some imbalance in score conversions. Reading and Writing now make up a single section- Evidence-Based Reading and Writing, or EBRW- and count for 800 points total, whereas Math has the same 800-point weight as it did on the old SAT.If youÃ¢â¬â¢re especially good at math, you might have an advantage on the new SAT, since the Math section now makes up half of your score rather than one-third of it. On the other hand, suppose youÃ¢â¬â¢re not so good at mathbut are reasonably strong at reading and writing. I won't encourage you to lower your standards for a good SAT score, soconsider doing more extensive math prep.This will probably lead to a score disparity of only around 50 points or so, but you should be prepared to contend with slightly lower scores initially if your math skills are weaker. If this seems like something you would make, then you're probably going to be fine on the Math section. Conclusion: A Good Score on the New SAT On the new SAT, scores are out of 1600 instead of 2400 (as they were on the pre-2016 SAT). Based on the most recent data released by the College Board in 2017, the average SAT score is 1060, the 75th percentile score is 1190-1200, and the 25th percentile score is 910-920. By looking up colleges you want to attend and finding their75th percentile scores for admitted students, you can calculate a more appropriate SAT score goal for yourself. If the scores listed by your school are for the old SAT, simply use our conversion charts to get a solid approximation of the new composite score you'll need to beat. For schools that only provide average Critical Reading and Math scores for the old SAT, you can use the Critical Reading score to estimate what your new EBRW score should be. What's Next? Still wondering if you should take the SAT or the ACT? Our article explainshow to decide between the two tests and figure out which one is ultimately right for you. Need help studying for the SAT? Thencheck outour collection of top study tips to get some pointers. In addition, see what our top 21 SAT tips and tricks are. For a comprehensive overview of all of the changes that came to the SAT in 2016, read our complete guide to the new SAT. Want to improve your SAT score by 160points?We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:
Monday, February 24, 2020
Argenti's 'A' score and Altman's 'Z' score models - Essay Example Simply speaking, a corporate failure may be defined as a situation when a company goes bankrupt and is thus forced to quit its business activities. Off course it is quiet obvious that any corporate concern goes out of business only if it fails on some fundamental parameters. Thus, corporate failure analysis constitutes and integral part of the contemporary business scenario. Hence the aim of any pragmatic corporate failure analysis is to identify the tell tale symptoms that are discernibly indicative of the fact that a company is heading towards annihilation. Such an analysis enables the management, administration, financial institutions and creditors to strive for and press on the need for introducing the apt countermeasures in advance so as to avert any possibility of a pending corporate failure. Till date, the concept of corporate failure analysis is predominated by two diverse approaches, one of which is purely quantitative whereas the other is thoroughly qualitative in its scope. If one holds that most of the corporate failures can be attributed to financial lapses, then it is certainly possible to avert any corporate failure by resorting to a timely and apt financial analysis. On the contrary there exists one other approach that believes that most of the corporate failures are caused by non-financial lapses and irregularities and financial irregularities in any company are a mere side effect of the discrepancies existing in the qualitative aspects of business. In the light of the given discussion, AltmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËZÃ¢â¬â¢ Score model is a noteworthy quantitative approach towards corporate failure analysis, whereas ArgentiÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËAÃ¢â¬â¢ Score model definitely stands to be its consummate qualitative counterpart. Altman's Z-score model is an important performance management and company failure analysis tool. Also known as Altman's Bankruptcy Predictor, this model was given by Edward I. Altman in 1968, who worked as a professor of finance at the New York University (Calandro 2007, p.37). This model is primarily a statistical formula that can be exploited to predict corporate performance. The basic strategy behind this model is that it depends for its validity on a series of chosen financial ratios and each and every selected key ratio is assigned a weighting. The Z score derived through the incorporation of the key ratios in the mathematical formulas is used to predict whether a company is liable to fail or not. The Z score calculated through a detailed data analysis is eventually used to predict the sustainability of a company. In case this Z score surpasses a specific figure, the company being analyzed is considered to be safe. A Z score of above 3 is considered to be healthy and safe while a score lying around 1.8-3 is regarded as being precarious. Thus Altman's Z score model is to a great extent dependent on the data culled out from a company's published financial statements and its reliance on the qualitative aspects of business is almost negligible Advantages of Z score model are: This model is considered to be highly accurate. In more then 72% of the cases, it has been found to successfully predict corporate bankruptcy. It is easy to calculate. This model can be used to complement other analytical tools. This model enables the analysts to incorporate many financial characteristics within a single score. The Disadvantages of Z score model are: It focuses only on financial data. Z score does not help the management to understand the dynamics of the problems existing in the company. The results may turnout out to be inaccurate in case of a corruption of the financial data. It is not useful for predicting company failure in the current scenario as it is based on out of date assumptions and data (Grice 2001, p.57). Its results do not stand to be that accurate in case of